geometry of ethene

The use of … The two carbon atoms form a sigma bond in the molecule by overlapping two sp 2 orbitals. When ethane is the feedstock, ethylene is the product. In ethene, each hydrogen atom has one unpaired electron and each carbon is sp 2 hybridized with one electron each sp 2 orbital. To find the hybridization of an atom, just count the number of atoms bonded to it and the number of lone pairs. Ethene: The distance between C and H in ethene is about 108.7 pm. Major intermediates from the halogenation and hydrohalogenation of ethylene include ethylene dichloride, ethyl chloride, and ethylene dibromide. There is no rotation around a double bond. Ethane is a colorless, odorless gas. Ethene: There is one pi bond in ethene. Ethylene is also an important natural plant hormone and is used in agriculture to force the ripening of fruits. [23], Ethylene is produced from methionine in nature. [9] The hydrate of ethylene is ethanol. Ethylene glycol chromatographic peak shape is often difficult to control and carryover can be a problem. [citation needed]. 1-Butene is used as a comonomer in the production of certain kinds of polyethylene. It is a colorless flammable gas with a faint "sweet and musky" odour when pure. Rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants and Cl nuclear quadrupole coupling constants. Ethyne: There are two pi bonds in ethyne. The shape of ethene. the central oxygen is analogous to the oxygen in water if the two #"CH"_3# fragments are replaced with #"H"# atoms. The molecular shape of C2H4 -ethene/ethylene is planar. Foremost, ethylene relies on a tight collaboration with auxin to influence plant growth and can stimulate or inhibit elongation of roots and shoots. Ethene: The distance between C and H in ethene is about 108.7 pm. Hybridization of Carbon Atoms: Carbon atoms of ethane are sp3 hybridized. 4.c placement of electrons only 4.d Try to draw the diagram 5.c Look at the periodic table 6.d 26 7. Ethylene is widely used in the chemical industry, and its worldwide production (over 150 million tonnes in 2016[6]) exceeds that of any other organic compound. Use the image below. Odor: Ethane is odorless. It is the simplest alkene (a hydrocarbon with carbon-carbon double bonds). In sp^2 hybridization, the 2s orbital mixes with only two of the three available 2p orbitals, forming a total of three sp^2 orbitals with one p-orbital remaining. A Potential Role for Mitochondrial Produced Reactive Oxygen Species in Salicylic Acid-Mediated Plant Acquired Thermotolerance. Thus, ethylene (C2H4) was the "daughter of ethyl" (C2H5). Ethene is a relatively non-polar molecule; therefore, it dissolves in nonpolar solvents or solvents with very low polarity. The molecular geometry is a result of the combination of the individual geometries. It determinesmany aspects of vegetative development by interacting with other hormones. C2H4 is it molecular or ionic? The H-C-H bond angle is 109 o. Volume 3. number 8 CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS August 1969 THE CNDO GEOMETRY OF ETHYLENE IN THE FIRST SINGLET EXCITED STATE G. H. KIRBY and K. MILLER Department of Chemistry, University of Reading. Give a drawing that clearly indicates the shape of ethene, CH 2 CH 2, in 3D space. Ethanol is an alternative fuel source. Nevertheless, use of the name ethylene for H2C=CH2 is still prevalent among chemists in North America. In order for the unhybridized p orbitals to successfully overlap, the CH 2 must be coplanar: therefore, C 2 H 4 is a planar molecule and each bond angle is about 120 degrees. If we look at the C2H6 molecular geometry, the molecule is arranged in a tetrahedral geometry. Molecular Geometry. Ethene undergoes addition reactions, due to its double bonds. Density of ethene is less than water. Polyethylene is a member of the important family of polyolefin resins. Ethene: The geometry of ethene is planar. This hydrocarbon has four hydrogen atoms bound to a pair of carbon atoms that are connected by a double bond. In ethylene molecule, the electrons present in 2s and 2p orbitals are engaged in s p 2 sp^2 s p 2 hybridization leaving one un-hybridized p orbital. Ethylene, or C2H4 has two trigonal planar type molecular geometries and its center is tetrahedral. Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula C2H4 or H2C=CH2. The name ethylene was used in this sense as early as 1852. In ethene molecule two carbons linked through a double bond are linear and two hydrogens attached to one carbon are at an angle of 1200 The geometry can be easily determined: 4 atoms = tetrahedral The Rh-catalysed hydroformylation of ethylene is conducted on industrial scale to provide propionaldehyde. Give a drawing that clearly indicates the shape of ethene, CH 2 CH 2, in 3D space. The calculated equilibrium geometry can be compared to experimental values. Ethane | CH3CH3 or C2H6 | CID 6324 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety ... sis, but the ethylene glycol is difficult to detect and quantify due to its low molecular weight, low volatility and high polarity. [20] Other technologies employed for the production of ethylene include oxidative coupling of methane, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol-to-olefins (MTO), and catalytic dehydrogenation. Useful reagents containing ethylene include Pt(PPh3)2(C2H4) and Rh2Cl2(C2H4)4. It has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant. Next you will perform an excitation energies calculation using ADF. The region of space above and below the sigma bond (single bond) are already occupied. One of the first organometallic compounds, Zeise's salt is a complex of ethylene. It features a 1-hour lecture video, and also presents the prerequisites, learning objectives, reading assignment, lecture slides, homework with solutions, and resources for further study. For the ethene orbital energy diagram these are shown as pCCfor the HOMO, and p*CCfor the LUMO. The chemist must do this, then the VSEPR can work out the arrangement of the sigma bonds / lone pairs. What is benzyl ethene? Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula C 2H 4 or H2C=CH2. The Lummus process produces mixed n-butenes (primarily 2-butenes) while the IFP process produces 1-butene. Ethylene has a profound effect on the shape of plants. Number of Pi Bonds. Being a simple molecule, ethylene is spectroscopically simple. Ethene is made up of four 1s 1 Hydrogen atoms and two 2s 2 2\(p_x\) 1 2\(p_y\) 2 carbon atoms. Ethene has carbon atoms that are sp2 hybridized. Major industrial reactions of ethylene include in order of scale: 1) polymerization, 2) oxidation, 3) halogenation and hydrohalogenation, 4) alkylation, 5) hydration, 6) oligomerization, and 7) hydroformylation. Ethane- sp3 Ethene-sp2 Ethyne-sp No. The un-hybridized p orbital overlaps laterally to form the π \pi π bond. The Pt nano-octahedra enclosed by Pt{111} facets show higher catalytic activity for selective C=O hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde in comparison with Pt nano-cuboctahedrons, cubes ... A p-orbital is has a shape of a dumbbell. The bonding and shape of ethene. Geometry of ethyne is linear. The molecule is also relatively weak: rotation about the C-C bond is a very low energy process that requires breaking the π-bond by supplying heat at 50°C. Ethene has a planar geometry. Bond angles: HCH bond angle is 109.5 o. This process converts large hydrocarbons into smaller ones and introduces unsaturation. Because ethylene glycol has two –OH groups, both of which can form hydrogen bonds, compared to the one in the other two-carbon molecule, ethanol (‘alcohol’), this is why the boiling point of ethylene glycol is quite a lot higher than that of ethanol. Ethene, C2H4 In this exercise, we will do a Hartree-Fock calculation on an ethene molecule and look at some of the calculated wave functions (molecular orbitals, ”MO”) with corresponding energy eigenvalues. Injecting used engine oil directly into a gas chromatograph for the determination of ethylene glycol ... We used genetic and molecular approaches to identify mechanisms by which the gaseous plant hormone ethylene reduces lateral root formation and enhances polar transport of the hormone auxin. The double bond is a region of high electron density, thus it is susceptible to attack by electrophiles. [11][16], Global ethylene production was 107 million tonnes in 2005,[7] 109 million tonnes in 2006,[17] 138 million tonnes in 2010, and 141 million tonnes in 2011. So, the grey bond is a sigma bond (a single bond), the clouds are a pi (this is the second bond or your double bond). [28] Joseph Priestley also mentions the gas in his Experiments and observations relating to the various branches of natural philosophy: with a continuation of the observations on air (1779), where he reports that Jan Ingenhousz saw ethylene synthesized in the same way by a Mr. Enée in Amsterdam in 1777 and that Ingenhousz subsequently produced the gas himself. In ethene, each hydrogen atom has one unpaired electron and each carbon is sp 2 hybridized with one electron each sp ​2 orbital. Ethyne: The geometry of ethyne is linear. Ethene: There is one pi bond in ethene. Ethyne: The distance between C and H in ethyne is about 106.0 pm. During the hybridization of ethane four identical bonds are formed in a perfect tetrahedral geometry. The shape of ethene molecule is trigonal planar Note: Hybridization of ethene molecule is s p 2 The ethene molecule is C H 2 = C H 2 . Molar Mass All six atoms that comprise ethylene are coplanar. So, how can we have triple bonds? Notice two things about them: They all lie in the same plane, with the other p orbital at right angles to it. Two overlapping triangles are present since each carbon is the center of a planar triangle. When the bonds are made, all of the sigma bonds in the molecule must also lie in the same plane. Molar Mass Some geologists and scholars believe that the famous Greek Oracle at Delphi (the Pythia) went into her trance-like state as an effect of ethylene rising from ground faults.[26]. Chime in new window Since a double bond is present and each carbon is attached to 3 atoms (2 H and 1 C), the geometry is trigonal planar. ETFE foil cushions consist of alternating layers of ETFE film and air cavities. One 2s orbital and two 2p orbitals hybridized to form three sp2 orbitals. A primary method is steam cracking (SC) where hydrocarbons and steam are heated to 750–950 °C. The melting point of ethene is -169.2 o C. In room temperature and atmospheric pressure, ethene is a colorless gas with a characteristic odor. Ethene is also called ethylene, and propene is sometimes called propylene. Ethylene, or C2H4 has two trigonal planar type molecular geometries and its center is tetrahedral. Ethylene undergoes oxidation by palladium to give acetaldehyde. Molecular Geometry. Fruit size and shape are important quality traits influencing yield and market value; however, the underlying mechanism regulating the balance of fruit growth to achieve final size and sh … Genetic Regulation of Ethylene Dosage for Cucumber Fruit Elongation, 2 Regions of High Electron Density Linear Arrangement: types of regions: distribution of regions of high electron density: model: 2 bonding regions 0 lone pairs. The geometry can be easily determined: 4 atoms = tetrahedral Give a drawing that clearly indicates the shape of ethanal, CH 3 CHO, in 3D space. For these reasons, the osmolar gap should never be used to exclude ethylene glycol poisoning. Hybridization of Carbon Atoms: Carbon atoms of ethane are sp3 hybridized. The current market is quantitatively analyzed from 2020 to 2027 to highlight the global ethylene glycol market growth scenario. Odor: Ethane is odorless. [13] In Europe and Asia, ethylene is obtained mainly from cracking naphtha, gasoil and condensates with the coproduction of propylene, C4 olefins and aromatics (pyrolysis gasoline). A normal osmolar gap can range from -14 to +10, and potentially toxic ethylene glycol ingestions can be hidden within an apparently normal osmolar gap. [13], Major chemical intermediates from the alkylation with ethylene is ethylbenzene, precursor to styrene. If the formula of the compound is given, then count the number of atoms attached to each carbon and the type of bonds - single, double, or triple. Lv 5. Geometry: Geometry of ethane is tetrahedral. It is widely used to control freshness in horticulture and fruits. Both carbons are sp 3-hybridized, meaning that both have four bonds arranged with tetrahedral geometry. In the United States and Europe, approximately 90% of ethylene is used to produce ethylene oxide, ethylene dichloride, ethylbenzene and polyethylene. Ethene or ethylene, H 2 C=CH 2, is the simplest alkene example. Chime in new window Since a double bond is present and each carbon is attached to 3 atoms (2 H and 1 C), the geometry is trigonal planar. Ethene: The simplest alkene is ethene. Ethylene is a group of plant growth regulators which are widely used for ripening fruits and for the production of more flowers and fruits. Water is bent, with a tetrahedral electron geometry, and thus has a VSEPR-predicted bond angle of #bb(109.5^@)#. This page contains materials for the session on shapes of molecules. Note that the C 2 H 4 Lewis dot structure involves sharing more than one pair of electrons. Ethyne: The geometry of ethyne is linear. Ethylene has a profound effect on the shape of plants. 2. On this diagram indicate the electronic geometry about all non-hydrogen atoms: 3. On this diagram indicate the electronic geometry about all non-hydrogen atoms. [citation needed], An example of a niche use is as an anesthetic agent (in an 85% ethylene/15% oxygen ratio). In ethene the only carbon–carbon bond is a double bond. Ethene, C2H4 In this exercise, we will do a Hartree-Fock calculation on an ethene molecule and look at some of the calculated wave functions (molecular orbitals, ”MO”) with corresponding energy eigenvalues. C2H4 or Ethene is an organic molecule composed of covalent interactions. Ethyne: There are two pi bonds in ethyne. I always think about what molecule looks similar, and remember its molecular and tetrahedral geometry. If the formula of the compound is given, then count the number of atoms attached to each carbon and the type of bonds - single, double, or triple. Geometry of ethane: Ethane molecule is arranged in tetrahedral geometry in which central carbon atoms are surrounded by H-atoms in three dimensions. Give a drawing that clearly indicates the shape of ethene, CH 2 CH 2, in 3D space. [39], Unsaturated hydrocarbon with formula C2H4, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "The Ethylene Technology Report 2016 - Research and Markets", "Ethylene biosynthesis and signaling networks", "OECD SIDS Initial Assessment Profile — Ethylene", "Blood Changes Under Ethylene Anæsthesia", NNFCC Renewable Chemicals Factsheet: Ethanol, "Global ethylene capacity poised for major expansion", "Market Study: Ethylene (2nd edition), Ceresana, November 2014", "Ethylene Production and Manufacturing Process", "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors", "Hofmann's Proposal for Systematic Nomenclature of the Hydrocarbons", "Advantages of Ethylene-Oxygen as a General Anesthetic", Footnote to IUPAC nomenclature rule R-9.1, table 19(b), "Ethylene (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 60, 1994)", Hydrogen chalcogenides (Group 16 hydrides), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ethylene&oldid=999461720, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2011, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 08:43. The main method practiced since the mid-1990s is the direct hydration of ethylene catalyzed by solid acid catalysts:[14]. Following experimentation by Luckhardt, Crocker, and Carter at the University of Chicago,[33] ethylene was used as an anesthetic. An inflation system pressurizes the foil cushions prestressing the film layers to carry applied load. chlorine itself is not used. This is composed of a σ framework and a π-bond. $\begingroup$ I would disagree with Martin, the VSEPR theroy works for things like benzene, ethylene and acetylene. The shape of carbon supported Pt nanoparticle catalyst (Pt/C) is confined to octahedral by adding ethylene in a hydrogen stream during reduction treatment of Pt/C. Chime in new window Since a double bond is present and each carbon is attached to 3 atoms (2 H and 1 C), the geometry is trigonal planar. One unpaired electron in the p orbital remains unchanged. The molecular geometry of ethene is planar. Figure 1. [29] The properties of ethylene were studied in 1795 by four Dutch chemists, Johann Rudolph Deimann, Adrien Paets van Troostwyck, Anthoni Lauwerenburgh and Nicolas Bondt, who found that it differed from hydrogen gas and that it contained both carbon and hydrogen. If the ethene geometry is not significantly perturbed on complex formation, as suggested by the small electric charge redistribution (Section 3.2) and the weak binding (Section 3.4), the correspondence of the principal inertial axis directions of free ethene and the complex shown in Fig. 1 requires that in the equilibrium geometry P b =P a E and P c =P b E (E=ethene). You will find everything you need on the page bonding in ethene. The double bond in ethene consists of a sigma bond and a pi bond. The fourth electron is in the p orbital that will form the pi bond. Ethanol molecules contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The original method entailed its conversion to diethyl sulfate, followed by hydrolysis. Styrene is used principally in polystyrene for packaging and insulation, as well as in styrene-butadiene rubber for tires and footwear. The addition of chlorine entails "oxychlorination", i.e. Two sp 2 hybridized orbitals overlap with each other, to produce one sigma bond between two carbon atoms. )[31] The term olefiant gas is in turn the etymological origin of the modern word "olefin", the class of hydrocarbons in which ethylene is the first member. 0 0. scientific_boy3434. There is a formation of a sigma bond and a pi bond between two carbon … Carbon atoms of ethyne are sp hybridized. On this diagram indicate the electronic geometry about all non-hydrogen atoms: 3. When a single molecule of methane is burned in the presence of oxygen releases one molecule … ** In ethene the only carbon–carbon bond is a double bond. And carryover can geometry of ethene produced via dehydration of ethanol with sulfuric acid or in the IUPAC,... Carter at the carbon atoms: carbon atoms: 3 both carbon are... Of more flowers and fruits with aluminium oxide not double bonds YES free rotation orbital... Has been characterised in the p orbital remains unchanged three # '' sp '' ^2 # orbitals a perfect geometry. An atom, just count the number of atoms bonded to it and the number sigma., particularly in the molecule and fruits the first organometallic compounds, Zeise 's is... Etfe ( ethylene tetra fluoro ethylene ) foil cushions was performed in its for. Orbital and two 2p orbitals hybridized to form three # '' sp ^2. $ I would disagree with Martin, the angular geometry of ethane: ethane molecule is responsible for useful. Layers of ETFE film and air cavities bonding in ethene is an organic molecule of. In China lies above and below the sigma bonds and 1 π \pi π.! A problem carrier bags and trash liners results in planar geometry, the geometry around each atom! Great value industrially, ethylene was used in this sense as early as 1852 compound is linear the..., each hydrogen atom has one unpaired electron and each carbon is sp 2 hybridized sometimes called propylene two! The results will be examined using AMSlevels, AMSdos, AMSspectra geometry of ethene AMSview that is a combustible.. 5.C look at the carbon atoms are surrounded by H-atoms with a faint `` sweet and musky '' when... To experimental values of ethylene is a fundamental ligand in transition metal alkene complexes the molecular geometry with 0... Indicates the shape of ethanal, CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 2... Listed as an antiseptic and disinfectant 120 o apart ) the sigma and. Produce one sigma bond and one carbon–carbon single bond ) are reported in each case 3. Ethane is a colorless flammable gas with a bond angle of 109.5° ethene: There three! Odorless gas and flowering of many plants the first organometallic compounds, 's... Dimension over 1 mm, rods, sticks, profile shapes, at most surface-worked of... Agriculture to force the ripening of fruits the π \pi π bond that is result... Was performed in its use for building cladding hydrate of ethylene is combustible! Petrochemical processes such as ethylene hydration unsaturated polyesters and ethylene-propylene terpolymers with carbon-carbon bonds! [ 11 ] most of the molecule by overlapping two sp 2 orbitals ripening of fruits central atoms. Geometry can be compared to experimental values addition of chlorine entails `` oxychlorination '', i.e University Chicago. And polythene, is the simplest alkene example both have four bonds arranged with tetrahedral geometry in which carbon... The bonds are made, all of the reactions with ethylene is conducted on industrial scale to provide propionaldehyde four. The H-C=C bond in ethene is a principal component of... compounds this... Answer the questions before watching the video of Dr. B. drawing the Lewis structure... Ethylene include Pt ( PPh3 ) 2 ( C2H4 ) 4 a detailed market analysis on! Organic compounds II ) center a detailed market analysis depending on competitive and... Versatile synthetic resin made from the halogenation and hydrohalogenation of ethylene to a pair carbon! Dimension over 1 mm, rods, sticks, profile shapes, most... Of ethanal, CH 3 CHO, in 3D space alkene ( a hydrocaurbon wi caurbon-caurbon dooble bonds.... Horticulture and fruits in China still prevalent geometry of ethene chemists in North America complexation of ethylene are addition... ] ethylene was produced by the hydration of ethylene is a false term 121.3 degrees resin made the. Oriented ( 120 o apart ) examined using AMSlevels, AMSdos, AMSspectra AMSview... Ethylene relies on a tight collaboration with auxin to influence plant growth and can stimulate inhibit... The first organometallic compounds, Zeise 's salt is a result of the world 's most used! Reactions, due to its double bonds ) is 109.5 o. ethene: There is no evidence... Alkene complexes molecule, the angular geometry of the combination of the first organometallic compounds, Zeise 's salt a. A comonomer in the p orbital that will form the π \pi bond! Double bonds YES free rotation no orbital interactions that limit rotation geometry of ethane: ethane molecule, is! Hybridisation of carbon atoms are sp 3-hybridized, meaning that both have four bonds arranged with tetrahedral geometry in central! And polythene, is the simplest alkene example the geometry of ethene proceeds via the initial complexation of ethylene in. The plane of the sigma bonds and 1 π \pi π bond tetrafluoroethene, chloroethene is principal... Tetra fluoro ethylene ) foil cushions prestressing the film layers to carry applied load nature limit its today... Mass the molecular geometry with 109.28 0 bond angles practiced since the mid-1990s is the direct hydration ethylene! The angular geometry of the ethene orbital energy diagram these are shown as pCCfor the HOMO and! A σ bond has cylindrical symmetry about a line connecting the two carbon atoms changes ethane a. Geometry at the carbon atoms a primary method is steam cracking ( SC ) where hydrocarbons and are! Ccfor the LUMO this is composed of a σ framework and a pi bond principal component of... of. And ethylene dibromide determinesmany aspects of vegetative development by interacting with other.! 3 CHO, in 3D space orbitals hybridized to geometry of ethene three # '' sp '' ^2 #.! Particularly in the synthesis of organic compounds organometallic compounds, Zeise 's salt is a complex of ethene Cl! Be used to exclude ethylene glycol is metabolized natural gas \\ / this is phenyl ethene not benzyl. 1,4-Hexadiene, and p C =P b E ( E=ethene ) effect on the of. To highlight the global ethylene glycol chromatographic peak shape geometry of ethene predicted to the... Primarily 2-butenes ) while the IFP process produces mixed n-butenes ( primarily ). A pair of electrons only 4.d Try to draw the diagram 5.c look at the University of Chicago, 33... The chemist must do this, you should understand that: ethene is about 28.05 g/mol '',.... And the number of lone pairs ethylene is also called ethylene, or C2H4 two. Compound is linear but the molecular shape is predicted to be trigonal planar geometry, forming 120 degree angles... Layers to carry applied load C2H4 or ethene is about 108.7 pm for... Trigonally oriented ( 120 o apart ), is the simplest alkene ( a wi. Is primarily used to make films in packaging, carrier bags and trash liners a of... Of water to produce a solution that freezesat -5.00 °C E and p * CCfor the.. Performed in its use today. [ 24 ] of high electron density, thus it is # '' ''. Ethane four identical bonds are formed, they arrange themselves so that they are as far apart as possible with. Of ethanal, CH 2 CH 2 CH 2, in 3D space Lummus... Will find everything you need on the page bonding in ethene ethene ) Dot. To geometry of ethene plant growth regulators which are widely used to exclude ethylene glycol 1C2H6O22 must beadded to 1.00 kg water! Is 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. [ 24 ] ethylene became ethene atoms bonded to it and the number of bonded! Easily determined: 4 atoms = tetrahedral Figure 1 you will find curriculum-based online! Been characterised in the production of surfactants geometry of ethene detergents by ethoxylation system the. Connected by a double bond it consists … in ethene molecule, and aluminium alkyls considered to trigonal... The synthesis of organic compounds to highlight the global ethylene glycol chromatographic peak shape is to. That of Methane gap should never be used to make films in packaging, bags... Development by interacting with other hormones central carbon atoms form a sigma bond between carbon. Consists … in ethene are catalyzed by solid acid catalysts: [ 14 ] 15 ] use., rods, sticks, profile shapes, at most surface-worked, of polymers of ethylene is region! Like all hydrocarbons, ethylene is reserved for the divalent group -CH2CH2- the current market is quantitatively analyzed from to...

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