counter insurgency and counter terrorism

This new global insurgent, on the other hand, uses the terrorist to create fear and modify the actions of local governments, and the interactions between the world’s governments. Military planners started to consider terrorism and insurgency as two separate threats when terrorist groups throughout the 70s composed of alienated individuals, such as the Italian Red Brigades and the German Red Army Faction, engaged in a season of attacks without achievable aims or trying to obtain popular support[6]. Terrorist organisations cannot be disrupted through counter-insurgency techniques and insurgencies are extremely resilient to counter-terrorism strategies. STUDY. Terrorism and insurgency are two distinct models of violent conflict. Region: Asia, Middle East & North Africa. In the French, Vietnamese and American insurrections, attacks were predominantly against the government and then against the local populace loyal to the prior government. However, confusion leads to counterproductive outcomes and, instead of containing and reducing threats, misguided measures have the potential to exacerbate the impact of political violence. What is the difference between counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism?. The Islamic global terrorist, on the other hand is focused on simply creating mayhem and fear amongst the populace…and that includes not only in the US, Russia and Europe, but within the Islamic nations, such as Arabia, Afghanistan and Iraq. As Kilcullen states, ‘terrorism is a component in almost all insurgencies, and insurgent objectives lie behind almost all non state terrorism’[13]. US counter-terrorism abroad: Fighting terrorism or encouraging it? In other words, insurgencies are long-term conflicts that the insurgent party wages with the intention of overthrowing the government to take its place. THE POP CULTURE PACIFIST: Making the World a More Dangerous Place, Rosetta Stone — Language Series [Review & Interview], GUNS ACROSS THE BORDER — Mike Detty [GCT Radio], STUDENT OF THE GUN: VOL.1 CONCEALED CARRY BASICS with Paul Markel, THE ULTIMATE SNIPER by MAJ John L. Plaster USAR (ret.) [4] Boyle, M. (2010) “Do Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency Go Together?,” International Affairs, Vol. 36, No. Once these COIN techniques were proven successful in isolating the insurgents, U.S. forces launched the second phase of the “Surge”. They’re trying to say that by using past techniques they are the same. Operations and Counterinsurgency Doctrine 358 Timothy L. Thomas 19 The Key Role of Psychological Operations in Countering Terrorism 380 Jerrold M. Post Part IV: Intelligence and Counterintelligence 20 The Contemporary Challenges of Counterterrorism Intelligence 397 Jennifer E. Sims. Firstly, population-centric COIN approaches sever the link between insurgents and population. But it was the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks that made counterterrorism a pillar of domestic and foreign policy in the U.S. and beyond. A clear example is given by Russia’s framing of the nationalist rebellion in Chechnya during the 1990s as a terrorist uprising. (2010) “Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency,” Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol. 11, p. 918. Consequently, strategies that rely on military operations designed to capture and kill insurgents without addressing the root causes of the insurgency are often counterproductive. (2013) “Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Russia: Contending Paradigms and Current Perspectives,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, Vol 36, No. Write. The difference between counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency is simple: counter-terrorism focuses more narrowly on combating the tactics and strategy of terrorism and those who employ it, while counter-insurgency is a broader category of responses to political violence carried out by minority groups, both terroristic and otherwise. This study examines the counterterrorism and counterinsurgency campaign against al Shabaab in Somalia. 4. 5, p. 34-37. for a cohesive summary of the origins and evolution of counterterrorism. Flashcards. Before the 1970s, the majority of Western military analysts considered the phenomenon of terrorism mainly as one of the many tactics deployed by insurgency movements, therefore, countermeasures against terrorism were incorporated in COIN strategies. The “Mindanao Model” – using classic counter-insurgency techniques to achieve counter-terror goals – has been directed against the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) and has helped force its fighters out of their traditional stronghold on Basilan. If no single definition of terrorism produces a precise, unambiguous description, we can approach the question by eliminating similar activities that are not terrorism, but that appear to overlap. Insurgency, counter-insurgency and terrorism in Pakistan. Hence, before implementing CT strategies, the government must first win the population’s support. Nevertheless, the marriage between CT and COIN is profitable only when the government is facing insurgents that adopt terrorism as one of their strategies. In-depth Report: PAKISTAN. Contemporary terrorist studies knowledge, particularly within an international relations context, touts the idea that states are justified and understandably employ brute force as a sole factor in counter insurgency efforts and thus lack a nuanced, intersectional perspective on the “nature, causes and responses to terrorism” (Jackson, 2007: 245). Insurgency, Counter-insurgency and Terrorism in Pakistan. Russia’s brutal hunt for the alleged “terrorists” in Chechnya caused the death of innocent civilians, alienated local communities and created the perfect breeding ground for radicalisation and protracted violence in the region[10]. [7] United States Department of Defense (2014) Joint Publication 3-26: Counterterrorism, U.S. Government Printing Office, p. I-5. Consequently, adopting the wrong strategy often strengthens the hostile movement. Even after having fought terrorism and insurgencies for more than 150 years, the military and the Capitol still have problems defining the difference between counter-terrorism (CoTer) and counter-insurgency (CoIn). CT and COIN are neither mutually exclusive nor interchangeable. Many of the techniques and tactics, though with technology nowhere as advanced, have been used in terrorism in the past by “guerrilla” movements and revolutionaries, such as the American and French revolutionaries, the Viet Cong, and the Bolsheviks that created many present governments. Global Research, March 13, 2017. Therefore, successful COIN efforts, instead of only seeking to kill insurgents and disrupt their networks, are mainly directed at severing the link between insurgents and local communities (population-centric approaches). 4, No. Distinguishing between terrorism and insurgency is becoming increasingly challenging for policy-makers and military planners. The latter subsumes the former. Terms in this set (12) Terrorism: premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant target by subnational groups or secret agents, usually intended to influence an audience. serious counterinsurgency. The School of Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism (SCICT) welcomes applications from undergraduate, postgraduate students and M.Phil or Ph.D scholars having research interest in the sphere of Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism, by sending mail on scict@rsu.ac.in and you will be informed by school on availability of internship. Remember how it was when President Bush stated that the United States of America and its allies were now in a war on terror? It is thus not rare for governments to implement countermeasures that, without causing significant damages to the insurgents, generate civilian casualties, alienate local communities, and indirectly legitimise the insurgents in the eyes of the population. Now that we know what insurgency and terrorism are. COIN strategies are mainly directed at reinforcing the government’s legitimacy and addressing the root causes of the population’s grievances while granting secondary emphasis to capturing and killing insurgents. On one level they’re right. It concludes that, while al Shabaab was weakened between 2011 and 2016, it could resurge if urgent steps are not taken to address key challenges. Get The New FREE GCT Magazine Newsletter and LEARN THEM ALL! [Book Review & Interview], Venezuela and the Future of South America, Searching for Judas: The peril of being in the Gun Business today, Sig Sauer MPX Submachine Gun at Media Day 2014, SSG3000 Suppressed Sig Sauer Media Day 2014, Benelli’s M4 Matches Well With the PDX1 Defender, SCHOOL SHOOTINGS: You Can’t Sterilize the World, ISRAELI SPECIAL FORCES TRAINING: COUNTER-TERROR CARBINE—The Israeli Method [DVD Review/GCT Radio Interview]. Panel 2 (October 16): Counterinsurgency and Counter-terrorism Counterinsurgency and counterterrorism are two of the most high-profile areas for capacity-building, particularly in the wake of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Match. When the Governor Comes Knocking: S&W Governor [PRODUCT REVIEW/TV], THE OTHER BAD GUY: A More Sinister Threat. This is what’s been perplexing the governments for years…and there’s a very good reason this. As one who remembers traveling on plane during the 1960s and 1970s, I can vividly remember a flight from Hawaii to Singapore in 1974. Again, it has to be emphasized that not all violence as part of some agenda is terroristic. Policy-makers and military officials often confuse insurgency for terrorism and vice versa because the two phenomena share many commonalities. PLAY. For the U.S. military, two such related concepts probably lead to more confusion than others. bryanna_mojica. Unlike the American and French Revolutionary (both insurgents were occupied with home rule), yet very much like the Bolshevik Revolutionary, which saw Russia as only a first step, this terrorist is focused on the whole populace with an objective of turning the world into an Islamic state…much like the past militant Leninist and Stalinist following Marxist rhetoric. If terrorism is part of a broader insurgency, counter-terrorism may employ counter-insurgency measures. It was the first time we were required to check carry-on bags as the result of the increase in hijackings by Arab terrorists. © 2021 The opinions expressed by the individuals in the published material do not represent the University of Glasgow, Dublin City University, Charles University, the IMSISS consortium, or its associates and partners. Effectively implementing CoTer and CoIn, takes into the account these differences and doesn’t get sucked into focusing on CoTer when CoIn is more appropriate, and vice versa. And, in understanding the differences constructing and conducting appropriate responses. Often, these threats are so interwoven that policy-makers, unable to separate the two, confront them by implementing similar strategies. Because insurgents rely on their links with the local population for securing their survival and advancing their cause, governments that implement counter-terrorism strategies to engage insurgency movements are unlikely to emerge victorious. CT and COIN are not interchangeable either. [5] See Rinehart, J. Third, the book sheds light on the counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency (CT-COIN) structures and mechanisms established by specific African states to contain, degrade, and eliminate terrorism, insurgency, and organised violence on the continent, particularly the successes, constraints, and challenges of the emerging CT-COIN mechanisms. But it runs the risk of pushing them into the arms of the broader insurgencies in Mindanao, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Moro National Liberation … The United States Department of Defence (DoD) in 2014 defined terrorism as ‘the unlawful use of violence or threat of violence, often motivated by religious, political, or other ideological beliefs, to instil fear and coerce governments or societies in pursuit of goals that are usually political’[3]. Differences between Terrorism and Insurgency. The Philippines: Counter-insurgency vs. Counter-terrorism in Mindanao Crisis Group Asia Report N°152, 14 May 2008 Page ii RECOMMENDATIONS To the Philippines Government: 1. Efforts to weaken the al Qa'ida-linked terrorist group al Shabaab in Somalia have had some success, but the U.S. campaign there is in … Firstly, the massive deployment of U.S. and Iraqi soldiers provided security and support to the local communities. The remaining six chapters cover the operational aspects of the overall campaign; intelligence, the security forces, military operations, personnel and logistic matters, psychological factors and public informa-tion. Learn. Retrieved from E-International Relations: https://www.e-ir.info/2010/12/21/what-is-the-difference-between-counter-insurgency-and-counter-terrorism/, p. 4. Although terrorism is a long-lasting feature of political violence, counter-terrorism as a stand-alone strategy was developed during the 1970s and gained substantial importance in the post-9/11 era[4][5]. Eliminate terrorists wherever possible, yet try to gain the support of the people. Or, more importantly why the US government along with many others are having such a problem defining the difference between counterterrorism and counterinsurgency. Therefore, they must not be confronted with one-size-fits-all approaches[1]. What America needs to do is implement both a counter-terrorism (CT) and counter-insurgency (CS) policy. GCT MAG ADJUSTS TO THE WINDS OF CHANGE: Are You Prepared? Counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency, although similar in certain respects, identify divergent assumptions and modalities for dealing with terrorism and insurgency. The best definition for terrorism I’ve been able to find is the one by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI): Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. Terrorism must be used against civilians or other non-combatants. The U.S. government has made fighting terrorism a priority since the early 1970s, following the terrorist attacks on the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, and several airline hijackings. According to the US Army/US Marine Counterinsurgency Field Manual: Insurgency is an organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through the use of subversion and armed conflict. Terrorism and Counterinsurgency Burke Chair reports on Terrorism and Counterinsurgency provide up-to-date analyses on the global threat posed by militants, non-state actors, and terrorist groups, and the mix of asymmetric warfare and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. As Insurgency and terrorism remain major threats to national security and … 5, No. Terrorist organisations cannot be disrupted through COIN techniques and insurgencies are extremely resilient to CT strategies. The separation of the definition is between Al Queda and the Taliban; and the Sunnis and their ilk, and say the Hamas, which is not only a terrorist organization, but a political party. Insurgencies, as defined by COIN scholar David Kilcullen, are ‘organised, protracted politico-military struggles designed to weaken the control and legitimacy of an established government, occupying power, or other political authority while increasing insurgent control’[8]. The definition of terrorism is much more convoluted as terrorism has been used by every insurgency throughout history to topple a government by coercing the ruling government to increase controls of its citizenry, thus creating increased popular disaffection, in an ever-increasing cycle that leads to major uprising by the majority against the ruling government. Counterinsurgency is a counterterrorist strategy. The US has a disastrous record of involvement in ‘counter-insurgency’ efforts in Central America. Consequently, understanding the difference between counter-terrorism (CT) and counter-insurgency (COIN) is a precondition for effectively engaging and disrupting terrorist organisations and insurgency movements, and this understanding is underpinned by the idea that ‘counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency are [neither] mutually exclusive’ nor interchangeable. Also, unlike the spreading of Communism that was fueled by terrorist acts committed by insurgents in countries throughout Latin America, Asia and Africa, not to mention the Red Brigades in Japan and Germany, had focused on taking political power. Engagement Options in Sub‐Saharan Africa, funded and coordinated by the Strategic Multilayer Assessment Office (SMA) of the Department of Defense. A plan of action by a single commissioner or military commander North Africa the governments for years…and there ’ move! And the coordination of a plan of action by a single commissioner or commander... 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